The ESAforD program, led by the Swedish EPA and collaborating with WAVES, is looking at natural water purification, pollination, and urban green open spaces.
Between 1997 and 2011, the global value of ecosystem services declined by up to US$20 trillion per year as a result of changing land use. Some latest research shows that, in the Asia-Pacific region, this downward trend is likely to continue unless there are significant policy changes.
An economic valuation of the Columbia River Basin will provide critical information that can inform negotiations for a 2024 Treaty update with local Native American tribes. A more expansive view of the Columbia River will allow for ecosystem-based functions to be included in a modernized Treaty.